“The process to kick-start life may not need a significant length of time or special chemistry, but could actually be a relatively simple process to get started,” said Matthew Dodd, a biogeochemist at University College London and the lead author of the paper.
has big implications for whether life is abundant or not in the universe.” [Melting ice in Greenland exposes some of Earth's oldest fossils] The microfossils were discovered in rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq (nuh-vu-ah-gi-took) belt in northeastern Canada.
Remains of microbial bugs thought to be the oldest known on Earth have been unearthed by British scientists.
As I reported at the time, scientists extracted 1,550 fossil fragments from the cave, which were then assembled into at least 15 individual skeletons—one of the richest hauls of hominid fossils ever uncovered.
Reliable data isn't available, but as of 2005, the top 10 emitters as measured in total greenhouse gases looked like this: 1.
When these are included, the figures change considerably, with countries such as Brazil and Indonesia shooting up the list due to emissions caused by deforestation. The US tops the list by a wide margin – though Chinese emissions have risen significantly since these data were assembled.
Since carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere can stay there for centuries, historical emissions are just as important – or even more important – than current emissions.
Here's a selection of countries and their per-person CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and cement, as of 2010: Qatar: 36.9 tonnes United States: 17.3 tonnes Australia: 17.0 tonnes Russia: 11.6 tonnes Germany: 9.3 tonnes UK: 7.8 tonnes China: 5.4 tonnes World average: 4.5 tonnes India: 1.4 tonnes Africa average: 0.9 tonnes Ethiopia: 0.1 tonnes See all countries As with national emissions, this list would look different if all greenhouse gases were included.