It was not until the middle of the 19th century that cake as we know it today (made with extra refined white flour and baking powder instead of yeast) arrived on the scene. The Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book [London, 1894] contains a recipe for layer cake, American (p. Butter-cream frostings (using butter, cream, confectioners [powdered] sugar and flavorings) began replacing traditional boiled icings in first few decades 20th century.In France, Antonin Careme [1784-1833] is considered THE premier historic chef of the modern pastry/cake world.Call it a dereliction of duty, if you like, but the discrepancies creeping into the hobby were totally at odds with the orderliness that spotters expected, and I ended up joining the legion of disenchanted youngsters who turned their attention to something more rewarding like railway photography - a natural adjunct to train spotting.So, combining both interests from old spotting days, the purpose of this page is to list as many different .In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order.
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An example are assemblages of pottery sherds each including roughly the same range of types though in different proportions.
Flinders Petrie excavated at Diospolis Parva in Egypt in the late nineteenth century.
Contextual seriation is often used for reconstructing the chronological sequence of graves as only the presence or absence of a design style or type is important.
Frequency seriation is applied in case of large quantities of objects belonging to the same style.